Hitler had total power in Germany, unrestricted by any constitutional constraints. The headline implied even more, however, than the major change in the constellation of power.
The Nazi rise to power I n the aftermath of World War I, Germany remained in turmoil throughout the s, providing an ideal setting for the rise of extremist ideologies and firebrand political leaders.
To Germans burdened by reparations payments to war victors, and threatened by hyperinflation, political chaos, and a possible Communist takeover, Adolf Hitler offered scapegoats and solutions.
Germans were provided with an easy explanation to all their problems: Following the meteoric rise of the Nazi Party, Hitler was appointed as chancellor of Germany on January 30, At the time, the other political parties were unhappy about letting Hitler, the leader of a paramilitary fascist party, become head of the government.
Hitler immediately began laying the foundations of the Nazi state.
|Table of Contents||In the last lesson, students looked at how the Nazis used laws to accomplish this goal. In this lesson, they will look at the way the Nazis used propaganda—through radio, the press, feature films and newsreels, theater, music, art exhibits, books, the school curriculum, sports, and more—to influence the beliefs, feelings, and actions of individuals to help further this goal.|
Guided by racist and authoritarian principles, the Nazis eliminated individual freedoms and pronounced the creation of a Volk Community Volksgemeinschaft --a society which would, in theory, transcend class and religious differences.
Hitler used a suspicious fire in the German parliament the Reichstag in February to suspend basic civil rights--rights that had been guaranteed by the democratic Weimar Constitution. The Third Reich became a police state in which Germans enjoyed no guaranteed basic rights and the SS, the elite guard of the Nazi state, wielded increasing authority through its control over the police.
Political opponents,along with Jews, were subject to intimidation, persecution, and discriminatory legislation. In the first two years of his chancellorship, Hitler followed a concerted policy of "coordination" Gleichschaltungby which political parties, state governments, and cultural and professional organizations were brought in line with Nazi goals.
Culture, the economy, education, and law all came under Nazi control. Using the Civil Service Law of AprilGerman authorities began eliminating Jews from governmental agencies, and state positions in the economy, law, and cultural life.
The Nazi government abolished trade unions. With the passage of the Enabling Law March 23,the German parliament transferred legislative power to Hitler's cabinet and thus lost its reason for being. By mid-July, the Nazi party was the only political party left in Germany. The other parties had been either outlawed by the government or had dissolved themselves under pressure.
Hitler had the final say in both domestic legislation and German foreign policy. Nazi foreign policy was guided by the racist belief that Germany was biologically destined to expand eastward by military force and that an enlarged, racially superior German population should establish permanent rule in eastern Europe and the Soviet Union.
The Third Reich's aggressive population policy encouraged "racially pure" women to bear as many "Aryan" children as possible. Within this framework, "racially inferior" peoples, such as Jews and Gypsies, would be eliminated from the region.
Jews were molested, some even killed, and Jewish businesses were harassed or destroyed. The first anti-Semitic initiative was the boycott of Jewish stores in April This was followed by a wave of anti-Semitic laws and decrees.
More than 2, racist laws and decrees were issued between and The position of the Jews at the centre of both political and economic affairs was perfect for theories of political conspiracy. It was relatively easy to accuse Jews of being in collusion with and responsible for communism, capitalism, liberalism, socialism, revolution, etc.
T he so-called Nuremberg Laws in were a landmark event. The most explicit expression of anti-Semitism was seen in the violent atrocities committed during the so-called Night of Broken Glass in Tens of thousands of Jews were imprisoned in concentration camps, while Jewish businesses, property and synagogues were destroyed.
The Jews were even presented with the bill for the atrocities committed by the regime: I n schools, the Nazi regime put much energy into showing the children why it was necessary to take action against the Jews. According to an official guideline for teaching about the Jewish Question fromthe teaching should ensure that every pupil " This book was written between andwhile Hitler was in prison for participating in the failed Beer Hall Putsch in Munich.
This goes for man as well as for the rest of nature. Racism and Nazism R acism together with anti-Semitism played a defining role in Nazi ideology. In the latter half of the 19th century, many of the intellectual roots of Nazism came into existence.
Racism, cloaked as pseudo-scientific social Darwinism, became a widely acknowledged set of thoughts that led to scientific treatises, books and research projects.
Frequently this research served the purpose of pointing out the superiority or inferiority of a specific nation or race. Based on such ideas of a racial hierarchy many European nations, including Germany, possessed a feeling that their nation was superior to everybody else.
This also meant that all members of this nation should dwell within the same national borders. From this come the extensive Nazi plans to move all ethnic Germans Volksdeutschewho were citizens of other countries, into the Third Reich.
Racist ideas were also the basis for the exclusion of undesirable individuals from the German race.Why did the Germans support the Nazi Party and its persecution of the Jews?
A ccording to the historian Saul Friedländer, the majority of the German population believed that the Nazi regime would lead Germany out of years of political turmoil. Why did the majority of Germans conform to Nazi rule. Essay The majority of German citizens conformed to Nazi rule because of the dual positive and negative pressures exerted by the regime.
The contrast between Nazi rule and that of the Weimar Government that preceded it is vital in understanding why the majority of Germans conformed to Nazi rule. Gellately describes how “many Germans believed that the liberal Weimar Republic was a degenerate society, and that their country was on the road to ruin”.
Finally, the Hitler myth is vital in understanding why the majority of Germans conformed to the rule of the regime. The contrast between Nazi rule and that of the Weimar Government that preceded it is vital in understanding why the majority of Germans conformed to Nazi rule.
A third reason why the Germans supported Hitler and the Nazi party in such large numbers was the failure of the Weimar government’s political system. It had proportional representation which meant the number of seats a party had in Reichstag (Parliament) was based on the percentage of the votes that party received(10% of votes=10% of seats).
The majority of Germans held more moderate prejudices that predated Nazi rule. Many could more easily support measures against “the Jews” in the abstract than the visible persecution or physical harm of Jewish neighbors or business people with whom they had longstanding relations.