Rocks and Minerals Enjoy our wide range of fun facts and information about different types of rocks and minerals for kids. Learn what rocks and minerals are, what the difference is, examples of rocks and minerals, the difference between igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, Mohs scale of hardness and much more. Read on and have fun finding out about rocks and minerals.
Types of Rocks Rocks are not all the same! The three main types, or classes, of rock are sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous and the differences among them have to do with how they are formed.
Sedimentary Sedimentary rocks are formed from particles of sand, shells, pebbles, and other fragments of material. Together, all these particles are called sediment. Gradually, the sediment accumulates in layers and over a long period of time hardens into rock. Generally, sedimentary rock is fairly soft and may break apart or crumble easily.
You can often see sand, pebbles, or stones in the rock, and it is usually the only type that contains fossils. Examples of this rock type include conglomerate and limestone. Metamorphic Metamorphic rocks are formed under the surface of the earth from the metamorphosis change that occurs due to intense heat and pressure squeezing.
The rocks that result from these processes often have ribbonlike layers and may have shiny crystals, formed by minerals growing slowly over time, on their surface.
Examples of this rock type include gneiss and marble. Igneous Igneous rocks are formed when magma molten rock deep within the earth cools and hardens. Sometimes the magma cools inside the earth, and other times it erupts onto the surface from volcanoes in this case, it is called lava.
When lava cools very quickly, no crystals form and the rock looks shiny and glasslike. Sometimes gas bubbles are trapped in the rock during the cooling process, leaving tiny holes and spaces in the rock. Examples of this rock type include basalt and obsidian.
Here's a chart of some of the key characteristics that can help you identify the rocks within these three main classes. Crystals Small, flat surfaces that are shiny or sparkly, like tiny mirrors. Fossils Imprints of leaves, shells, insects, or other items in the rock. Gas bubbles "Holes," like Swiss cheese, in the rock.
Glassy surface A shiny and smooth surface, like colored glass. Ribbonlike layers Straight or wavy stripes of different colors in the rock.Notes and guidance (non-statutory) Pupils in years 1 and 2 should explore the world around them and raise their own questions.
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During mountain building, rocks became highly deformed, and the primary objective of structural geology is to elucidate the mechanism of formation of the many types of structures (e.g., folds and faults) that arise from such timberdesignmag.com allied field of geophysics has several subdisciplines, which make use of different instrumental .
Rocks: Igneous, Metamorphic and Sedimentary Rocks hold the history of the earth and the materials that will be used to build its future. Igneous. Igneous Rocks: Rocks on Mars Many of the rocks found on Mars are not very different from Earth rocks.
Tucson Show. Mineral Show Photos From the Tucson Gem, Mineral & Fossil Show. Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ignis meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and timberdesignmag.coms rock is formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or timberdesignmag.com magma can be derived from partial melts of existing rocks in either a planet's mantle or .