Stimulant drugs

It is important to recognize the negative consequences of stimulant abuse, as they underscore the ugly truth behind the euphoric stimulant high. Tolerance is a contributing factor to the development of both dependence and addiction and occurs when a person becomes so physiologically accustomed to the high levels of stimulant drug that they need more and more of it to feel the desired euphoric effects. Physical dependence can develop when a person uses stimulants often or in high doses—a pattern of use that may arise given an ever-increasing tolerance to the stimulant effects 2.

Stimulant drugs

Misuse of Prescription Drugs Which classes of prescription drugs are Stimulant drugs misused? Opioids What are opioids?

Stimulant drugs

Opioids are medications that act on opioid receptors in both the spinal cord and brain to reduce the intensity of pain-signal perception. They also affect brain areas that control emotion, which can further diminish the effects of painful stimuli.

They have been used for centuries to treat pain, cough, and diarrhea. However, since the s, they have been increasingly used to treat chronic pain, despite sparse evidence for their effectiveness when used long term. Chemically, these medications are very similar to heroin, which was originally synthesized from morphine as a pharmaceutical in the late 19th century.

Hydrocodone products are the most commonly prescribed in the United States for a variety of indications, including dental- and injury-related pain.

Opioids act by attaching to Stimulant drugs activating opioid receptor proteins, which are found on nerve cells in the brain, spinal cord, gastrointestinal tract, and other organs in the body. Opioids can also produce drowsiness, mental confusion, nausea, constipation, and respiratory depression, and since these drugs also act on brain regions involved in reward, they can induce euphoria, particularly when they are taken at a higher-than-prescribed dose or administered in other ways than intended.

Understanding Dependence, Addiction, and Tolerance Dependence occurs as a result of physiological adaptations to chronic exposure to a drug.

It is often a part of addiction, but they are not equivalent. Addiction involves other changes to brain circuitry and is distinguished by compulsive drug seeking and use despite negative consequences. These symptoms can be mild to severe depending on the drug and can usually be managed medically or avoided by slowly tapering down the drug dosage.

When tolerance occurs, it can be difficult for a physician to evaluate whether a patient is developing a drug problem or has a medical need for higher doses to control his or her symptoms.

However, it is possible to develop a substance use disorder when taking opioid medications as prescribed. This risk and the risk for overdose increase when these medications are misused. Even a single large dose of an opioid can cause severe respiratory depression slowing or stopping of breathingwhich can be fatal; taking opioids with alcohol or sedatives increases this risk.

With both dependence and addiction, withdrawal symptoms may occur if drug use is suddenly reduced or stopped. These symptoms may include restlessness, muscle and bone pain, insomnia, diarrhea, vomiting, cold flashes with goose bumps, and involuntary leg movements. How is prescription opioid misuse related to chronic pain?

Health care providers have long wrestled with how best to treat the more than million Americans who suffer from chronic pain. Patients themselves may even be reluctant to take an opioid medication prescribed to them for fear of becoming addicted.

Estimates of the rate of opioid addiction among chronic pain patients vary from about 3 percent up to 26 percent.

This variability is the result of differences in treatment duration, insufficient research on long-term outcomes, and disparate study populations and measures used to assess nonmedical use or addiction. When first prescribing opioids, physicians should give the lowest effective dose for the shortest therapeutic duration.

As treatment continues, the patient should be monitored at regular intervals, and opioid treatment should be continued only if meaningful clinical improvements in pain and functioning are seen without harm. Central nervous system CNS depressants, a category that includes tranquilizers, sedatives, and hypnotics, are substances that can slow brain activity.

This property makes them useful for treating anxiety and sleep disorders. The following are among the medications commonly prescribed for these purposes Clonazepam may also be prescribed to treat seizure disorders. Usually, benzodiazepines are not prescribed for long-term use because of the high risk for developing tolerance, dependence, or addiction.

They are thought to have fewer side effects and less risk of dependence than benzodiazepines. However, they are still used in surgical procedures and to treat seizure disorders. How do CNS depressants affect the brain and body?Intermediate and Long-Acting Stimulants.

Side effects of these medications include loss of appetite, weight loss, sleep problems, irritability, and tics.

Which classes of prescription drugs are commonly misused? | National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)

List of Stimulant Drugs Stimulants are dangerous drugs that are commonly abused by individuals looking to stay alert and focused, lose weight, stay awake, and get high. Although these drugs can be extremely harmful and even life-threatening, many of them can also be used to treat conditions like ADHD, narcolepsy, and in some cases, depression.

What are stimulants? Stimulants increase alertness, attention, and energy, as well as elevate blood pressure, heart rate, and respiration. Historically, stimulants were used to treat asthma and other respiratory problems, obesity, neurological disorders, and a variety of other ailments.

Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.

Stimulants are widely used throughout the world as prescription medicines as well as without a. Stimulants come in a variety of forms, including amphetamines, cocaine, and methamphetamines. Prescription medications for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are also often stimulants. Improper use of stimulants (other than when used as prescribed by a doctor) can lead to hostility, paranoia, and even psychotic symptoms.

Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.

List Of Stimulant Drugs Abused In The United States