Specification — What you need to know[ edit ] For this unit you need to know the following: The Strengths and Weaknesses of the view that all ideas are derived from sense experience: The strengths and weaknesses of the view that claims about what exists must be ultimately grounded in and justified by sense experience. The Strengths and Weaknesses of the view that the mind contains innate knowledge regarding the way the world is:
I know Oxford well - Ability Knowledge e. I know how to ride a bike - Propositional knowledge e. I know that eagles are birds First 2 types of knowledge are interesting but we are only concerned with Propositional knowledge.
We intuitively make a distinction between belief and knowledge: Of course you can believe that they are grey, but that is the difference - beliefs can be false. You have made a mistake, believing it to be true when it is not. For example, someone on a jury might think that the person on trial is guilty just from the way they dress.
Their belief, that the person is guilty, might be true: So belief can be accidentally true, relative to the evidence the person has: Someone could hold a belief that is, in fact true, even whey they have evidence to suggest it is false.
The contrast is, in the first instance, about how we know enter a proposition is true.
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But is this alignment correct? The theory that there can be no a priori knowledge of synthetic propositions around the world outside the mindthat is, all a priori knowledge is of analytic propositions, while all knowledge of synthetic propositions must be checked against sense experience.
Knowledge - AO1 - Locke argues that all ideas are derived from sense experience. Impressions of sensation derive from our senses, such as seeing a car; impressions of reflection derive from our experience of our mind, such as feeling emotions.
The latter is weaker, fainter. And so there are ideas of sensation for example, the idea of red and ideas of reflection for example, the idea of sadness. Concepts are a type of idea. And to each there is a corresponding idea. Whole many of us have seen a picture of a unicorn, someone had to invent the idea without seeing a picture So how can it be true that all ideas derive from sense experience?
This is easy to see in the case of unicorns: However, his response, for each each of these examples, is that the concept - as we usually think of it - has no application.
But how can experience show us that something exists independently of experience? But, we can object, this makes most of our common sense idea of the world wrong. Our concepts are coherent. The fact that we cannot derive them from experience shows that they are innate or known through rational intuition - So the difficulty empiricists have in explaining our most abstract complex concepts is an argument that these concepts are not derived from experience.
One reason to think they are innate is that children use these concepts early on in life. Rather than reject or reinterpret the concept, they keep the concept, arguing that our experience trigger the concept, and we begin to conceptualise experience in terms of physical objects and selves. All our knowledge that goes beyond what is present to our senses or memory, he claims, rests on casual inference.
Knowledge of matters of fact, beyond what we are experiencing here and know, relied on induction and reasoning about probability.
Socrates is a man. All men are mortal. He begins his investigation into what we can know by attacking sense experience. He explains that you can doubt all your sense experiences. You can doubt even the senses that seem most certain.
One, Optical Illusions - Our senses can be unreliable as they can be fooled, for example if you put a pencil in water it will appear bent to the eye, however in our minds we know this to be false but our eyes do not.
Two, The Dreaming Argument - He said that when we are sleeping and dream we cannot tell whether we are actually asleep or not, or whether our senses are correct. We may be sleeping and it may not exist at all. If, as Hume argues, sense experience is the foundation of knowledge about what exists then we are in trouble, because we cannot know that our senses experiences is a good guide of what exists.
If the demon were to make him doubt his thinking, that would only show that he is.
That he has got to a point of pure reasoning. This leads to the theory of solipsism idea that only you exist. However, Descartes, argues God is perfect by definition.A-level Philosophy/AQA/Reason and experience. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world Philosophy | AQA.
Jump to navigation Jump to search. AS Philosophy for AQA. Unit 1: Reason and Experience. Contents. 1 Specification – What you need to know; 2 Assessment Level Descriptors;.
In all of the tables in this document, both the pre NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre levels unless specifically stated otherwise.
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[Discussion] AQA GCE Philosophy Unit 1&2 Aqa A2 Philosophy Unit 3 & 4, PHIL3/PHIL4 Revision Thread Who's doing the AQA religious studies B unit 1 . Home > A Level and IB > Philosophy > AQA Philosophy Unit1 AS (Knowledge and Experience) AQA Philosophy Unit1 AS (Knowledge and Experience) Philosophy AS.
Hide Show resource information. Philosophy; AS; AQA Philosophy Unit 1 tips. / 5. Kant's Conceptual Scheme Notes (AQA). OCR is a leading UK awarding body, providing qualifications for learners of all ages at school, college, in work or through part-time learning programmes.