Roman Catholic Ethics Using an embryo for the sake of another human is wrong as an embryo has intrinsic worth. But there is no similar objection to using adult stem cells. Natural Law is positive about advances in medical science that improve human life, but never at the expense of human life.
Utilitarianism Utilitarianism looks at the benefits and risks associated with genetics. One of the problems with this sort of approach is that it is impossible to know the effects of, say, GM crops.
Genetically modified crops could potentially affect all farming, but how likely is this to occur?
The hedonic calculus allows us to weigh up extent and certainty, but relies on us having a good idea what the extent will be and how likely the problems are to occur. Bentham considers all sentient creatures, and therefore may have problems with using animals for pharmaceuticals or to grow human organs.
Singer would want to consider the interests of animals alongside humans. If it were simply a case of a single pig dying to save a human life, Singer is likely to value the human far more than the pig, as the human has far more and greater interests. However, many of these technologies involve harming a much larger number of animals, which would be a concern for Singer.
Kant's Ethical Theory Kant takes a very different approach from utilitarianism. Kant's theory deals in absolute rules.
Rather than asking what the benefits of embryonic stem-cell research might be, he would ask whether there was anything in principle wrong with such research.
Could you will that embryonic stem-cell research became a Ethics natural law on genetic engineering law? If it was, it could mean that you had been experimented on instead of being implanted.
This is contrary to the will - an imperfect duty. Some Kantians disagree, as they do not see the embryo as a 'potential person' yet. See a detailed sample answer to an exam question. Kant would be happy with xenotransplantation using animals to grow organs for humans as long as there were no risks to humans.
Animals have no intrinsic value for Kant as they are not rational. Put another way, to ask "Would you will that you be used to grow organs for humans if you were a pig?
Natural Law is based on the principle that God designed the world. Genetic Engineering involves tampering with or changing the way the world is. However, we need to be cautious here. All of medicine involves changing the way the world is in some way.
The real question is whether a therapy or procedure is intended to allow an organ or part of the body to fulfil its purpose, or to carry out some other purpose. Natural Law would therefore be against enhancement genetic engineering, but may be happy with somatic-cell therapies that corrected disorders.
Natural Law may be against using animals to produce pharmaceuticals or to grow organs for transplant as this runs contrary to their God-given purpose.
This isn't clear cut. Most Natural Law theologians tend to see animals as lower beings and accept that they may be used to, for example, feed humans.
I don't know of any Natural Law theologians who are against the use of animals to test pharmaceuticals, which is clearly not what they were designed for. The justification may be that one of the primary precepts of Aquinas' Natural Law Theory is to protect and preserve human life, in which case 'pharming' and xenotransplantation would be seen as acceptable.
Natural Law may well support GM Foods. We mustn't get confused between natural and artificial with this theory.
Natural Law has no problem with artificial limbs, synthetic fibres etc. The real question is, will GM food be better at feeding the world? Potentially, modifying food to increase yield could reduce costs, feeding more people in Africa and reducing human suffering.
The concerns from a Natural Law point of view would therefore be the unknown effects will it harm humans - contrary to one of the primary preceptsand the uneven distribution of knowledge already western companies are patenting genes and charging developing countries to use them.
Situation Ethics Situation Ethics instructs us to love. It is a theory concerned with humans one of the four Ps is Personalism. Therefore situationists would be more than happy to use animals to grow organs or pharmaceuticals. The real question with these therapies is: Do xenotransplantation and 'pharming' work?
There is good evidence to suggest they do work very successfully, so Situation Ethics would support them. What about human genetic engineering? Gene therapies that are somatic in one person's body [soma] would doubtless be seen as a loving alternative to letting someone suffer and die.
Germ-line therapies are more problematic, as they may affect many future generations, and Situation Ethics is teleological, concerned with outcomes.introducing the science of genetic engineering and philosophical ethics as separate topics, their resulting application of this hybrid method is genetic engineering is wrong simply because it is unnatural or against In a detailed section on theology, they discuss issues such as natural law and the stewardship mentality that humans "can.
Natural Law is a moral theory which maintains that law should be based on morality and ethics. Natural Law holds that the law is based on what’s correct.
Natural Law is discovered by humans through the use of reason and choosing between good and evil. The natural law is nothing else than the rational creature's participation of the eternal law.
1. All things operate according to their created nature and thus follow the eternal law by natural inclination. Jul 20, · Ethics guide. Biotechnology Watson has spoken in favour of genetic engineering Biotechnology isn't something new - selective breeding to create more useful varieties of animals and plants is.
Jun 08, · Genetic Engineering Ethical Issues. ETHICAL ISSUES AND GENETIC ENGINEERING. RELIGIOUS ETHICS. The sanctity of life is a key theme and this means that human life has intrinsic value. Roman Catholic Ethics. Primary Ethics Cultural Relativism Natural Law Utilitarianism Consequentialism and criticism Kant.
Natural Law – “right reason in agreement with nature” In the OCR specification, natural law and situation ethics are applied to euthanasia (and in the Year 2 part of the specification all moral theories including natural law are applied to issues in sexual ethics – premarital sex, extramarital sex and homosexuality).