Communication Sciences Master of Arts The principal goal of the Master of Arts program is to develop clinical scientists who are skilled in the management of individuals with speech and language disorders. Upon successful completion of the Master of Arts degree, students will also meet the academic and clinical practicum requirements for certification by ASHA and licensure in the State of Ohio. Degree requirements include completion of 42 credit hours of course work and a clinical practicum in communication disorders.
The aim of the present study was to review the literature and to explore the psychological impact of dialysis on the quality of life of people with chronic renal failure.
Literature review based on studies and reviews derived from international Medline, PubMed, Cinahl, Scopus and Greek Iatrotek data bases concerning psychological problems of people with renal failure. The collection of data conducted from March to December Also, were used keywords such as haemodialysis, psychological factors, social status, economic status, renal failure, quality of life, as well as articles by the National Documentation Centre, which provided valid and documented data from global research and epidemiology.
According to the literature, Chronic Renal Failure is associated with long-term psychological effects on patients undergoing haemodialysis. A chronic illness, such as kidney failure, is a continuous process since these patients try to accept their new image and to adapt their lifestyle to dialysis treatment.
Patients with kidney disease undergoing regular dialysis face difficulties in maintaining their employment, their social life, their financial flexibility and their limitation of liquids and foods.
Complexity and chronic nature of the disease affect the quality of life of patients with CRF and their health and reduce their life expectancy. So, the role of the Nephrology Nurse is highly important for the implementation of effective nursing interventions and psychological support during their treatment.
Key words Dialysis, chronic renal failure, quality of life, psychological factors Introduction Chronic Renal Failure CRF is an irreversible and progressive kidney failure where body fails to maintain metabolic and electrolytic balance, resulting in uremia, metabolic acidosis, anemia, electrolyte imbalances and endocrine disorders.
At the same time, their physical health, their functional status, their personal relationships and their social and economic status are greatly affected. The most common stressors are financial difficulties, changes in social and marital relationships, [ 2 ] regular hospital admission, inability of holiday vacation, restriction of leisure time, relationships with nursing and medical staff, fear of disability or death, increased dependence on artificial kidney machine, uncertainness about the future and physical fatigue.
That is because the daily consumption of fluids should not exceed of ml per day due to the risk of causing pulmonary edema. An equally distressing factor is the requiring effort to follow the dietary guidelines, as the excessive intake of potassium and phosphorus is responsible for causing heart failure and possible itching or renal osteodystrophy respectively.
According to that study, Loss of employment is responsible for the appearance of intense anxiety and problems of sexual function while employment positively affects the psychological status and libido of spouses.
Physical or mental fatigue can be caused by sleep disorders or fatigue after dialysis. Specifically, these patients, before the enrollment in a program of CRF, are facing a health problem as most people with a chronic problem. After the beginning of dialysis, they exhibit considerable psychological personality disorders, such as alexithymia, neuroticism, introversion and psychotism.
Depression is associated with important aspects of the clinical course, including mortality, increased number of hospital admissions, reduced compliance with drugs and reduced quality of life.
The association between psychosocial factors and depression depends on gender, age and type of dialysis. Also, depression manifests mainly with sadness, anxiety, depressed mood, poor self-esteem, pessimism about the future, decreased libido, sleep disorders and limited appetite.Timothy P.
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