African-American dance African-American dancelike other aspects of African-American culture, finds its earliest roots in the dances of the hundreds of African ethnic groups that made up African slaves in the Americas as well as influences from European sources in the United States. Dance in the African tradition, and thus in the tradition of slaves, was a part of both everyday life and special occasions. Many of these traditions such as get downring shoutsand other elements of African body language survive as elements of modern dance.
They speak Ebonics "Ebony," meaning "black" and "phonics," meaning "sound" -- a language which evolved in the Americas as a result of the adaptation of English words to an African language system. Since many African Americans do not speak standard English, An analysis of slavery in american culture and american development is more than reasonable to suggest that in order to effectively and sussessfully teach the culturally and linguistically different Black child in the urban school the English language, the logical place to begin is with the cultural and linguistic experiences of the Black child.
That is, with Ebonics, using a bilingual and bicultural approach. Smith, a distinguished author, lecturer and professor of linguistics at California State University at Fullerton. Smith believes that the high failure and drop-out rate of Black children across the United States is traceable to the fact that they are limited or non-English speakers, but neither the United States government, state departments of education nor local school boards recognize this fact.
Hence, millions of dollars are spent to teach English as a second language to Mexican, Asian, Indian, Persian, Oriental and other non-English speaking people, while black children must be content with attempting to grasp knowledge imparted to them in a language that is not their own.
Smith emphatically rejects the view that Black Americans speak a version of "Black English," "Black vernacular" or "Black dialect. Ann Arbor School District July 12, Smith, the concept or term "Black English," as it is currently used in the literature, is contradictory.
How can a person be your sister and still be an only child? If you say 'Black English' and speak utterances using syntactical patterns that are not English, it is impossible to maintain that you are speaking the English language.
Smith continues, "when you say two people of two speech communities speak the same language or different dialects thereof, the relative evidence for saying that it is the same language is that there is continuity of the morphology [defined below].
Knowing the sounds of the language will not make you a speaker of the language; nor will knowing the vocabulary of the language make you a speaker of the language. What you must know and master in order to speak any language, are: Smith, actually "think in and use African syntactical patterns, but they have borrowed and extensively used European words.
So that the so-called "Black English" or "substandard English" still spoken by many Black Americans is in fact a separate language, Ebonics, whose basic foundation is clearly African. Smith's conclusions are largely based on his research and the research of other scientists on the language and culture of Africans and African Americans.
For thousands of years, a number of languages have evolved on the continent of Africa. Included among these were the world's earliest written languages, which first appeared in the region of the modern day Congo and the upper Nile Valley about six thousand years ago.
By the 16th century A.
Although in many instances these dialects were mutually unintelligible, each of them possessed common phonological sound features and grammatical sentence structures. Therefore, many linguists believe that these languages had the same or similar origins and belonged to a single language family.
Furthermore, there are solid bits of empirical evidence that suggest that at this same time West Africans had developed a Lingua Franca or trade language spoken by common agreement between different language groups. Smith, this communication was facilitated by the vocabulary from several dominant languages such as Ngola, Fulani, Wolof, Yorbuba, Mandingo, Malinke, Bambara and Dwe.
Because of these shared linguistic features, West Africans, who were brought to the New World as slaves, were able to retain a singular African language structure.
Smith, "he was speaking Niger-Congo or what are called Hamito-Bantu languages. Niger-Congo is a geographical designation for the languages of West Africa. These Hamitic and Bantu people, who were captured in West Africa, were speaking languages whose phonology, grammar and lexicon words were different from those of the Indo-European languages with which they came into contact in the New World.
Smith continues, "were brought into America and the Caribbean speaking African languages; and as a result you see that, to the extent that they have been integrated into white society, there is more likelihood of their sounding European or borrowing more European features.
To the extent that Black Americans have lived in social isolation, you will find the linguistic retention of an African Hamito-Bantu substratum in their phonology, grammar and vocabulary. Smith insists, "knew the words," but because most were denied a formal education and could not read, they generally did not learn the grammar of the European language to which they were exposed.
You can learn the sounds that are different and you can learn and extensively memorize the vocabulary, but learning Spanish words won't make one a speaker of Spanish. What one has to know and speak in order to have competence in Spanish is the Spanish morphology or verb system.
Smith, "is an African morphology or substratum with French, Portuguese, Dutch, Spanish and English words in it," depending on where the Africans lived in the New World.
Smith, "is the English language. At one time the English language was not spoken on the British Isles. The islands were inhabited predominantly by what are called Celtic people.
In about A. The Celtics began to hire mercenaries to help them expel the Scots and the Picts after the power of the Roman legions had waned. Following their expelling the Scots and Picts, after the Roman legions had disbanded, we find the English language -- an unintelligible dialect of German - being spoken on the British Isles.Introduction.
Sources for the study of the history of women in Latin America’s national period grew exponentially in the late 20th and early 21st centuries, both in the English-speaking world and, to a lesser extent, in Latin America itself. When Black Culture and Black Consciousness first appeared thirty years ago, it marked a revolution in our understanding of African American history.
Contrary to prevailing ideas at the time, which held that African culture disappeared quickly under slavery and that black Americans had little group pride, history, or cohesiveness, Levine uncovered a cultural treasure trove, illuminating a rich.
"EBONICS: A Serious Analysis of African American Speech Patterns" Many Black Americans do not speak standard English. They speak Ebonics ("Ebony," meaning "black" and "phonics," meaning "sound") -- a language which evolved in the Americas as a result of the adaptation of English words to an African language system.
Since many African Americans do not speak standard English, "it is more than. Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel enslavement, primarily of Africans and African Americans, that existed in the United States of America in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Slavery had been practiced in British America from early colonial days, and was legal in all Thirteen Colonies at the time of the Declaration of Independence in Commerce Tacoma, Washington () or toll-free [email protected] Modified: August 31, African-American cultural history.
From the earliest days of American slavery in the 17th century, slave owners sought to exercise control over their slaves by attempting to strip them of their African culture. The physical isolation and societal marginalization of African slaves and, later, of their free progeny, however, facilitated the retention of significant elements of traditional.